Jeffrey D. Sachs is the Director of The Earth Institute, is Quetelet Professor of Sustainable Development, and is a Professor of Health Policy and Management at Columbia University. He is also Special Advisor to United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan on a group of poverty alleviation initiatives called the Millennium Development Goals. Prior to joining Columbia, Sachs spent over twenty years at Harvard University, most recently as Director of the Center for International Development. Sachs became internationally known in the 1980s for his work advising governments in Latin America, Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, Asia, and Africa on economic reforms. He is Author or Co-author of more than two hundred scholarly articles, and has written or edited many books. Sachs was recently elected into the Institute of Medicine and is a Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research. A native of Detroit, Michigan, Sachs received his BA, MA, and PhD degrees at Harvard University.